Owen, ‘The Craft of Guillaume Le Clerc’s Fergus’, mediante The Craft of Sceneggiato: Essays mediante Medieval Poetics, ed
Closing is giammai less intertextual, both con its assurances of the lovers’ perfect union and sopra the insistence on textual boundaries: Sires et rois levante apieles Et ele apielee roine
and London, 1989), pp. 20–50 (‘Fergus: the Courtois Vilain’); D. D. R. L. A. Arrathoon (Rochester, MI, 1984), pp. 47–81, and ‘The Craft of Fergus: Supplementary Notes’, French Studies Bulletin 25 (1987–88), 1–5 (on Guillaume’s debt puro the Perceval Continuations). It is astonishing that it receives so little mention, as far as one can tell per the absence of an index, durante The Legacy of Chretien de Troyes, addirittura. N. J. Lacy et al., 2 vols. (Amsterdam, ). There is verso reference per I, 145. Marquardt, Der Einfluss Kristians von Troyes auf den Roman ‘Fergus’ des Guillaume Le Clerc (Gottingen, 1906). The nearest parallel is Huon de Mery’s Tournoiement Antechrist. Here too the essential borrowings from Chretien had been recognized con an early German dissertation (by Max Grebel, Leipzig, 1883), but have only quite recently been examined for the artistry with which they have been recycled: see K. Busby, ‘Plagiarism and Poetry per the Tournoiement Antechrist of Huon de Mery’, Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 84 (1983), 505–21. For the distinction of the terms parody, pastiche and burlesque, which Owen tends sicuro use interchangeably, see T. Hunt, ‘La Parodie medievale: le cas d’Aucassin et Nicolette’, Romania 100 (1979), 341–81 (pp. 347–50). There are references sopra Chretien preciso a Scottish king Aguisel (Erec line 1966), Carduel (Erec line 5724, Yvain line 7, Perceval lines 330 and 797), Cototatre (Perceval line 3613 ? Firth of Forth), Danebroc (Erec lines 2127 and 2133 ? Edinburgh), Scotland (Erec lines 1966, 5223 and 6638; Cliges lines 1473 and 2386), Galloway (Perceval lines 6522, 8301 and 8560; Erec lines 6089 and 6821), Orcanie (Perceval lines 8741, 8941, 8995 and 9023). See R. L. Graeme Ritchie, Chretien de Troyes and Scotland, The Zaharoff Lecture for 1952 (Oxford, 1952).
This was illustrated, albeit rather atomistically, by one coupon imeetzu of the first modern publications on Fergus, W
And yet, although Fergus is often approached as a roman d’apprentissage with per lieve imperfezione-Perceval as hero21 – Marquardt already showed there were more debts sicuro the Perceval than onesto any other of Chretien’s romances – the context of the whole work is unmistakably inscribed in the cadre of Yvain, the paradigm of medieval romance which seems sicuro have been ever present con Guillaume’s mind. The pastiche begins with the details of the abito en scene. The opening incident of Yvain takes place ‘apres mengier, par mi les sales’ (line 8) echoed mediante ‘Frumentone es sales se sejornoient/ Apres mangier . . .’ (Fergus lines 19–20), but whereas in Chretien the guests talk together of ‘recent happenings’ (nouveles, line 12) and love (amours, line 13), and then Calogrenant begins esatto relate an adventure notable for being to his discredit, Fergus isolates two members of the athletique, Gauvain and Yvain, compares them loftily with Achilles and Patroclus, and then with calculated bathos reveals that they talk merely ‘d’unes et d’autres’ (line 33: ‘of this and that’) and ‘disoit cascuns son voloir’ (line 37: ‘each said whatever he pleased’), thus trivializing the theme of court discussion. A signal inversion of the source occurs when the two friends are interrupted by the unexpected arrival of the king (‘Li rois se laisse entr’els caoir’, line 38), whereas con Yvain it is the queen who interrupts (‘Qualora ora non piu laissie entr’eus queoir’, line 66; Arthur is asleep), the interruption causing Gauvain and Calogrenant respectively sicuro spring to their feet (‘Sinon oriente errant sailli en pies’, Fergus line 41; ‘Sali en pies contre li sus’, Yvain line 68). Arthur is far from drowsy, but bored and bent on action: ‘je vel orendroit errer./ Li sejorners pas ne me plest:/ Je vel cachier en la forest’ (Fergus lines 46–48: ‘I’ve a mind onesto set out straight away! Loafing around is not esatto my taste: I wish preciso go hunting per the forest’). The audience is thus invited preciso appreciate the reworking of per celebrated romance opening. Cil [l’]aimme com s’amie fermo Et ele lui comme ami compatissante. Guillaumes li clers trait a affective De sa matere et de sa trove. Car en nule terre ne trove Nul homme qui tant a toi vescu Del chevalier au biel escu Plus en auparavant conter l’en sace. Ici met la bonne et l’estace; Ici levante la fins del roumans. Grans joie viegne as escoutans. (lines 7000–12)22